Epilepsia (1988 Mar-Apr) 29(2) :163-71
Lantz D.L., Sterman M.B.
Neuropsychological assessment of subjects with uncontrolled epilepsy:
effects of EEG
feedback training.

A battery of neuropsychological teats were adinistrated at baseline,
postcontrol period, and posttraining period to 24 drug-refractory subjects with epilepsy
participating in a study of sensorimotor electroencephalographic (EEG) normalization feedback
training. Improvement on several measures occurred following participation in the

International Journal of Psychophysiology, (1988 Aug) 6(3) :185-94
Tozzo, C. A.. , Elfner L. F. , & May, J. G. , Jr.
EEG biofeedback and relaxation training in the control of epileptic

A study of 6 young adults with a diagnosis of epilepsy of at least two
years who had been unable to control their seizures with different regimens of
anticonvulsant medications. All subjects were able to increase their percent time in SMR.
Five out of the 6 subjects demonstrated decrease in seizure frequency during the
treatment phase. Research utilizing sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) biofeedback with epileptics
suggests that it is useful in decreasing seizures.

Seizure (1992 Jun) 1(2) : 111-6
Andrews D.J., Schonfeld W. H.
Predictive factors for controlling seizures using a behavioral approach.

A study of 83 patients with uncontrolled seizures received care between
1980 and 1985, document that 69 (83%) achieved control by completion of the program.

Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, (1988) :70 (1), 18.
Fischer- Williams, M. & Clifford, B. C.
Biofeedback treatment of patients with seizures - a pilot study of EEG

A study with 10 subjects with complex partial seizures or major seizures of
11-19 years. All subjects were able to obtain greater seizure control

Annals of Behavioral Medicine, (1986) :8(1), 21-25
Sterman, M. B. This article reviews literature available on the treatment of epilepsy with
The author discuss the different types of epilepsy, and stress that causes
problems with diagnosis, polypharmacy, recidivism, and treatment.

Epilepsia , (1974) 15, : 395-416
Sterman, M. B., Macdonald, L. R.., & Stone, R. K.
Biofeedback training of the sensorimotor electroencephalogram rhythm in

A study on 4 epileptic and 4 nonepileptic subjects. Epileptic patients
showed a marked and localized increases in the occurrence on SMR activity. The epileptic
subjects showed a reduction in major motor seizure frequency.

Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1976
Joel F. Lubar and W. W. Bahler
Behavioral Management of Epileptic seizures following EEG biofeedback
training of the sensorimoter rhythm.

A study of 8 severely epileptic pateints, were trained in increse 12-14hz
EEG activity from the regions overlying the rolandic area. 2 of the patients who had
been severely epileptic, have multiple seizures per week , have been seizure free for
periods of up to 1 month. Other patients have developed the ability to block many of their
seizures. Seizure intensity and duration have also decreased.

Biological Psychology, 2, 1975, 189-203
William W. Finely, Hoyt A. Smith and Murray D. Etherton
Reduction of seizures and normalization the EEG in a severe epileptic
following sensorimotor biofeedback training: preliminary study

A 13 year old male with frequent epileptic seizures was trained SMR
biofeedback training. His rate of clinical seizures decreased by a factor of 10 and
significant reduction in percentage of epileptiform discharges was noted.

Archive of Neurology (1981 Nov) 38(11): 700-704
Lubar, J., Shasbin, H., et al.
EEG operant conditioning in intractable epileptics.

Study of eight patients with mixed seizures involved in a double blind
cross over study to determine effectiveness of operant conditioning of the EEG as an
anticonvulsant procedure. 5 of the 8 experienced a decrease in their mean monthly seizure

Epilepsia (1988 ) 29(2) : 172-183
Dahl, J., Melin, L., Leissner, P.
Effects of a behavioral intervention on epileptic seizure behavior and
paroxysmal activity: A systematic replication of three cases of children with intractable

Study of three children involved in EEG biofeedback training show that all
three responded with a decrease in seizure behavior and paroxysmal activity using
an adapted countermeasure technique.