Biofeedback and Self Regulation (1991 Sep) 16(3) :201-25
Discourse on the development of EEG diagnostics and biofeedback for
attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorders.
This article presents a review of work done by Dr. Lubar and colleagues
have been doing during the past 15 years developing a rationale for the
diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treatment
of ADHD employing EEG biofeedback technique.
Biofeedback and Self Regulation (1995 Mar) 20(1) :83-99
Lubar J.F., Swartwood M.O., O'Donnel P.H.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for ADHD in a
clinical setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A. scores, behavioral
ratings, and WISC-R performance.
A study of 23 ADHD children and adolescents which received 2-3 months
intensive neurofeedback training. Part 1 indicated that subjects who
successfully decreased theta activity showed significant improvement in
T.O.V.A. performance; Part 2 revealed significant improvement in parent
ratings following neurofeedback training; and Part 3 indicated significant
increases in WISC-R scores following neurofeedback training.
Medical Psychotherapy (1990), Vol. 3, pp. 57-68
Tansey, M. A.
Righting the Rhythms of Reason: EEG Biofeedback training as a therapeutic
modality in a clinical office setting.
This study presents a clinical, office setting based, treatment regimens
for learning disabilities utilizing EEG biofeedback training. 24 youngster
with brainwave signature patterns reflective of a brain-based learning
disability were given EEG 14hz biofeedback training. It is noteworthy that
the brainwave signatures and WISC-R profiles "normalized" as a result of
the training with significant remediation of the learning disorders. There
was significant (>15 pt.) growth in WISC-R full scale, verbal and
performance IQ scores reflecting improved brain function and resultant test
performance with a normalization of verbal performance IQ anomalies.
Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1993, Vol 18, 33-44
Tansey, M. A. PH.D.
Ten year stability of EEG biofeedback results for a ten year old
hyperactive boy who failed fourth grade in a class for the perceptually
A follow up study ten years after treatment was terminated. This ten year
follow-up confirms the long term stability of the results of the EEG 14hz
Journal of Neurotherapy, Summer (1995) p 48-59
Thomas R. Rossiter, Ph.D and Theodore J. LaVaque, Ph.D.
A comparison of EEG biofeedback and psychostimulants in treating attention
deficit hyperactivity disorders.
This study compared the effects of EEG biofeedback and stimulant medication
in reducing AD/HD symptoms. The results indicate that the EEG biofeedback
program is an effective alternative to stimulants and may be the treatment
of choice when medication is ineffective. has side effects., or compliance
is a problem.
Australian Journal of Psychology, 1991, Vol 43, 147-153
Tansey, M. A. PH.D.
Wechsler (WISC-R) changes following treatment of learning disabilities via
EEG biofeedback training in a private practice setting.
This study presents WISC-R profiles and changes following the application a
an EEG biofeedback treatment regimens for brain-based learning
disabilities. 22 of 24 subjects manifested increased in their full scale
IQ scores of a least one standard deviation (15 IQ points); with the
remaining 2 cases showing an increase 14 IQ points and 13 IQ points
respectively for all subject. As a group, their post-EEG biofeedback
training scores, substantially exceeded their pre-EEG biofeedback training
scores over and above expected gains due to a retest factor.
Journal of Neurotherapy, vol 1, number 2 Fall, 1995, pp.15-38
Andrew Abarbanel, PH.D., M.D.
Gates, states, rhythms, and resonances: The scientific basis of
This paper presents a set of electrophysiological and neurophysiological
processes as bases for the efficacy of neurofeedback training for attention
deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder,
Biofeedback and Self-Regulation
Vol, 20. No 1, 1995
Janzen T., Graap K., Stephanson S., Marshall W., Fritzsimmons G.
Differences in baseline EEG measures for ADD and normally achieving
This study was designed as a replication of previous studies describing
dynamic EEG differences between behaviorally dissimilar groups. This study
is intended as a reference point from which other researchers can continue
to establish the EEG correlate of "on-task" behavior. Eight ADD children
and eight normally achieving controls were assessed using dynamic EEG
measures. Results are reported for the task of baseline for reading,
drawing, and eye open. Significant amplitude differences between the
groups were demonstrated in the theta . These results are discussed in
relation to EEG neuro-feedback training paradigms and the importance of
establishing normative "on task " value.
Epilepsia (1988 Mar-Apr) 29(2) :163-71
Lantz D.L., Sterman M.B.
Neuropsychological assessment of subjects with uncontrolled epilepsy:
effects of EEG
A battery of neuropsychological teats were administrated at baseline,
postcontrol period, and posttraining period to 24 drug-refractory subjects with epilepsy
participating in a study of sensorimotor electroencephalographic (EEG) normalization feedback
training. Improvement on several measures occurred following participation in the
International Journal of Psychophysiology, (1988 Aug) 6(3) :185-94
Tozzo, C. A.. , Elfner L. F. , & May, J. G. , Jr.
EEG biofeedback and relaxation training in the control of epileptic
A study of 6 young adults with a diagnosis of epilepsy of at least two
years who had been unable to control their seizures with different regimens of
anticonvulsant medications. All subjects were able to increase their percent time in SMR.
Five out of the 6 subjects demonstrated decrease in seizure frequency during the
treatment phase. Research utilizing sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) biofeedback with epileptics
suggests that it is useful in decreasing seizures.
Seizure (1992 Jun) 1(2) : 111-6
Andrews D.J., Schonfeld W. H.
Predictive factors for controlling seizures using a behavioral approach.
A study of 83 patients with uncontrolled seizures received care between
1980 and 1985, document that 69 (83%) achieved control by completion of the program.
Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, (1988) :70 (1), 18.
Fischer- Williams, M. & Clifford, B. C.
Biofeedback treatment of patients with seizures - a pilot study of EEG
A study with 10 subjects with complex partial seizures or major seizures of
11-19 years. All subjects were able to obtain greater seizure control
Annals of Behavioral Medicine, (1986) :8(1), 21-25
Sterman, M. B. This article reviews literature available on the treatment of epilepsy with
The author discuss the different types of epilepsy, and stress that causes
problems with diagnosis, polypharmacy, recidivism, and treatment.
Epilepsia , (1974) 15, : 395-416
Sterman, M. B., Macdonald, L. R.., & Stone, R. K.
Biofeedback training of the sensorimotor electroencephalogram rhythm in
A study on 4 epileptic and 4 nonepileptic subjects. Epileptic patients
showed a marked and localized increases in the occurrence on SMR activity. The epileptic
subjects showed a reduction in major motor seizure frequency.
Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1976
Joel F. Lubar and W. W. Bahler
Behavioral Management of Epileptic seizures following EEG biofeedback
training of the sensorimoter rhythm.
A study of 8 severely epileptic pateints, were trained in increse 12-14hz
EEG activity from the regions overlying the rolandic area. 2 of the patients who had
been severely epileptic, have multiple seizures per week , have been seizure free for
periods of up to 1 month. Other patients have developed the ability to block many of their
seizures. Seizure intensity and duration have also decreased.
Biological Psychology, 2, 1975, 189-203
William W. Finely, Hoyt A. Smith and Murray D. Etherton
Reduction of seizures and normalization the EEG in a severe epileptic
following sensorimotor biofeedback training: preliminary study
A 13 year old male with frequent epileptic seizures was trained SMR
biofeedback training. His rate of clinical seizures decreased by a factor of 10 and
significant reduction in percentage of epileptiform discharges was noted.
Archive of Neurology (1981 Nov) 38(11): 700-704
Lubar, J., Shasbin, H., et al.
EEG operant conditioning in intractable epileptics.
Study of eight patients with mixed seizures involved in a double blind
cross over study to determine effectiveness of operant conditioning of the EEG as an
anticonvulsant procedure. 5 of the 8 experienced a decrease in their mean monthly seizure
Epilepsia (1988 ) 29(2) : 172-183
Dahl, J., Melin, L., Leissner, P.
Effects of a behavioral intervention on epileptic seizure behavior and
paroxysmal activity: A systematic replication of three cases of children with intractable
Study of three children involved in EEG biofeedback training show that all
three responded with a decrease in seizure behavior and paroxysmal activity using
an adapted countermeasure technique.
MILD HEAD INJURY:
Journal of Neurotherapy, 1.22-37
Byers, A.P. (1995).
Neurofeedback therapy for a mild head injury.
Biofeedback and Self-Regulation (in press).
Ham, L.P., & Packard, R.C.
A retrospective, follow-up study of biofeedback-assisted relaxation therapy
in patients with post-traumatic headache.
Journal of Neurotherapy, 1, 14-21 (1995)
Hoffman, D.A., Stockdale, S., Hicks, L.L., & Schwaninger, J.E.
Diagnosis and treatment for head injury.
Journal of Insurance Medicine, 23, 228-232 (1991)
Johnstone, J., & Thatcher, R. W.
Quantitiative EEG analysis and rehabilitation issues in mild traumatic
Headache Quarterly, 4, 42-52 (1993)
Packard, R. C.
Mild head injury
Electroencephalography and Clincal Neurophysiology, 73, 94-106
Thatcher, R. W., Walker, R. A., Gerson, I., & Geisler, R. H. (1989)
EEG discriminant analysis of mild head trauma.